Such foods as flour, potatoes, dried vegetables, sugar, apples, and dried fruits may be purchased by the barrel, box, or other measure. If several families jointly purchase such quantities of foods, the expense is reduced. It is also of advantage to buy from the producer. The middle man's profit is thus eliminated.
COOKING AND SERVING A LUNCHEON OR SUPPER
Cook and serve a luncheon or supper. The following menu is suggested:
Cream of Pea Soup--Croutons Macaroni and Cheese Lettuce Salad Bread and Butter Oatmeal Cookies Tea
Follow the English or family style of serving. Serve the luncheon or supper without a maid. Calculate the cost of the meal per person.
REVIEW: MEAL COOKING
Chopped Steak Boiled or Steamed Potato Coleslaw Tea
See Lesson XIV for suggestions regarding the preparation of the lesson.
HOME PROJECTS I [Footnote 61: See Lesson IX]
SUGGESTIONS FOR HOME WORK.--Prepare salads or other foods containing leafy vegetables at least twice a week.
Calculate the quantity of milk used by each member of your household.
(1) To prepare salads which are both pleasing in appearance and tasty. (Make sure that they are properly seasoned.)
(2) To vary either the materials used in salad-making or the method of serving and preparing the same salad materials.
(3) If the vegetable is cooked, to prepare it in such a way that no nutriment is lost.
(4) To compare the quantity of milk used by each member of the family with the quantities suggested at the top of.
FLAVORING MATERIALS: FOOD ADJUNCTS
FOOD ADJUNCTS--DISHES CONTAINING FOOD ADJUNCTS
FOOD ADJUNCTS.--Besides the foodstuffs there are edible substances called food adjuncts. These cannot be termed foods, as they do not perform the functions of such, but they give flavor to them and they may excite the secretion of the digestive juices, and thus aid in the digestion of real foods. For the most part, food adjuncts are contained in these classes of materials,--condiments, flavoring extracts, and beverages.
Condiments.--Seasoning materials and spices are called condiments. They are used with foods to give the latter a pleasing flavor. But condiments should be eaten in moderation. They are often used to cover up the flavor of inferior or poorly prepared foods and they are often used to excess in sauces. Highly seasoned sauces should be served only with foods that are insipid in taste, but valuable for their nutritive properties. Good foods, well cooked, have a flavor which needs little change. We should train ourselves to enjoy the natural flavor of foods, so that there is no craving for condiments.
Salt may be classed both as a condiment and as a food (see Ash). When used in moderation, it has undoubted value in diet. It is used in many types of foods, especially meats and vegetables. The flavor of sweet foods such as cakes and sweet sauces is invariably improved by the addition of a small quantity of salt.
Vinegar is an acid flavoring material prepared by fermenting apple or grape juice or other materials. It contains acetic acid.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of a small tree. Like most spices, it contains a volatile oil, i.e. an oil which evaporates. Cinnamon is sometimes adulterated with cassia, a spice prepared from the bark of the cassia tree which grows in China and Dutch West Indies. Cassia is similar to cinnamon in flavor.
Cloves are the flower buds of an evergreen tree which grows in Brazil, Ceylon, and West Indies.
Nutmeg is the dried kernel of a fruit which grows on a tree native to the Malay Archipelago.
Ginger is the root of a tropical plant. It contains starch and oil of ginger.
Mustard is prepared from the seed of mustard plants.
Black pepper is obtained from the unripe berry of a tropical vine while white pepper is prepared from the ripe berries. The latter is not as pleasing in flavor as black pepper and is more expensive.