Method 1.--Heat the milk, being careful that it does not scorch. Brown the butter slightly in a saucepan, add the flour and salt, and stir the mixture until it is perfectly smooth and has a deep cream color. Then add the hot milk gradually, stirring to prevent the formation of lumps. Cook 5 minutes, stirring constantly to prevent the sauce from scorching. Sauce made according to this method does not require long cooking because the flour added to the hot fat cooks quickly. In fact, it is a very desirable method, for the browned butter and the flour lend flavor to the sauce. Many otherwise unattractive or rather tasteless foods can be made much more appetizing by the addition of white sauce made in this way.
Method 2.--Put the milk on to heat. While this is heating, stir the butter, flour, and salt together until they are soft and well mixed; then add the hot milk to them slowly, stirring constantly. Place over the heat and finish cooking, or cook in a double boiler. Sauce made by this method requires longer cooking than the preceding one and it has less flavor.
Method 3.--Heat the milk, reserving a small portion. Stir the flour smooth with the cold milk and add it to the hot milk, stirring rapidly. Add the butter and the salt, and continue to stir if cooked over the heat; if cooked in a double boiler, stir only until the mixture is completely thickened and then continue to cook for 10 or 15 minutes. When butter is added to the mixture in this way, it is likely to float on top, especially if too much is used. A better sauce may be made according to this method by using thin cream for the liquid and omitting the butter.
MILK, BUTTER, AND CHEESE (PART 1)
(1) When milk is used in a meal, what kinds of food may be omitted?
(2) Name the chief uses of milk in the dietary.
(3) Why is it possible for a child to remain in normal condition if given only milk for a long period of time?
(4) Name the solids contained in milk and tell for what each one is valuable.
(5) What causes milk to sour?
(6) What are the characteristics of wholesome milk?
(7) What is meant by the adulteration of milk?
(8) What quality of milk is of the most importance to the health of those using milk?
(9) (a) Why is dirty milk dangerous? (b) Pour a quart of the milk you purchase regularly through a pad of cotton. Note the result and report the condition of the milk by comparing the cotton with the disks shown in Fig. 2.
(10) Name some of the ways in which milk is likely to become contaminated.
(11) What is the safest kind of market milk to buy?
(12) Describe the conditions under which milk of this kind is marketed.
(13) (a) What is pasteurized milk? (b) What is the purpose of pasteurization?
(14) How may milk be pasteurized in the home?
(15) (a) When should milk be sterilized? (b) What changes take place in the sterilization of milk?
(16) What points should be considered in the purchase of milk?
(17) Why is it necessary to give milk considerable care in the home?
(18) Mention the precautions that should be observed in caring for milk.
(19) (a) How is milk affected by cooking? (b) Describe the best way to heat milk.
(20) Give the proportions of flour and liquid required in each of the three varieties of white sauce.